The math and cmath Modules Python in a Nutshell, 2nd Edition Book


‘overflow’ floating-point exception mapping to OverflowError. For large arguments, Lanczos’ formula works extremely well here. The distance function in Python returns the distance between two points, also known as Euclidean distance. The average function calculates the average value of a numerical list. The GCD function in Python returns the greatest common divisor between two specified numbers. In the below example, we are checking the value of PI using math.pi function is as follows.

Below is a list of trigonometry functions that you can perform in Python. These also require you to import the math module before you can execute the function. The exponential function in Python calculates the exponential value of a number by setting the base to the constant e (2.71828). We curated a list of math functions below to provide an overview of the most common math functions utilized in Python. Use this list as well as the interactive code module to hone your programming skills and become a stronger Python developer.

Return the integer part of the square root of the input. Return an accurate floating point sum of values in the iterable seq. Natural logarithm of absolute value of Gamma function at x.”

There are multiple python math librariess to use the Pi constant in Python. However, most of these methods would involve importing a module. In this tutorial, we look at the most common and well-documented methods. OneCompiler’s python online editor supports stdin and users can give inputs to programs using the STDIN textbox under the I/O tab.

It is very popular for web development and you can build almost anything like mobile apps, web apps, tools, data analytics, machine learning etc. It is designed to be simple and easy like english language. It’s is highly productive and efficient making it a very popular language. This function returns with the positive value of a given number. Return True if x is a positive or negative infinity, and False otherwise.

  • If the base is any other number except 0, then the function will return a valid power value.
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  • These include trigonometric functions, representation functions, logarithmic functions, angle conversion functions, etc.
  • However, in the second case, the difference between 6 and 7 is not less than or equal to the established absolute tolerance of 0.2.
  • There is a built-in function, pow(), that is different from math.pow().

An imaginary number is a number that gives a negative result when squared. Dist() returns the Euclidean distance between two points p and q, each given as a sequence of coordinates. The greatest common divisor of two positive numbers is the largest positive integer that divides both numbers without a remainder. You can substitute the known values to the equation to calculate the half-life of a radioactive substance. You can see how the value changes when the log base is changed. Scientific research has identified the half-lives of all radioactive elements.

2.5. Hyperbolic functions¶

As with pi and tau, Euler’s number is an irrational number with infinite decimal places. Each module exposes two attributes of type float bound to the values of fundamental mathematical constants, pi and e, and the following functions. The math module offers functions for calculating various trigonometric ratios. The angle in radians is required as an argument by the functions (sin, cos, tan, etc.).

The math module provides two methods to convert angles from radians to degrees and vice versa. The math module supplies mathematical functions on floating-point numbers, while the cmath module supplies equivalent functions on complex numbers. For example, math.sqrt(-1) raises an exception, but cmath.sqrt(-1) returns 1j. In the first part we will learn the basic math functions with different coding examples.


This article will explain the basics of everything you need to know. However, we will only discuss the most important ones in this section. Note that Python makes no effort to distinguish signaling NaNs from quiet NaNs, and behavior for signaling NaNs remains unspecified. Typical behavior is to treat all NaNs as though they were quiet.

Python Tutorial

The functions of the Python math module aren’t equipped to handle complex numbers. However, Python provides a different module that can specifically deal with complex numbers, the cmath module. The Python math module is complemented by the cmath module, which implements many of the same functions but for complex numbers. Isqrt() returns the integer square root of a non-negative integer. When the number is negative, floor() behaves the same as ceil().

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An error message is displayed if number is not integral. Ceil value means the smallest integral value greater than the number and the floor value means the greatest integral value smaller than the number. This can be easily calculated using the ceil() and floor() method respectively. The math.nan constant stands for Not a Number, and it can initialize those variables that aren’t numbers. Technically, the data type of the math.nan constant is float; however, it’s not considered a valid number.

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Number of ways to choose k items from n items without repetition and without order. Number of ways to choose k items from n items without repetition and with order. Calculate the product of all the elements in the input iterable. Determine whether two floating point numbers are close in value.

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Exponential, logarithmic, and trigonometric functions are among the many sophisticated mathematical operations covered. As result, the math module will come in handy for financial, scientific, and math-related applications. Python 3 math module complex data types not supported by this module. Some of the most popular mathematical functions are defined in the math module. These include trigonometric functions, representation functions, logarithmic functions, angle conversion functions, etc. In addition, two mathematical constants are also defined in this module.

Finding the power of a number

The logistic function is a mathematical function that takes any real number and returns a value between 0 and 1. This is useful for modeling certain types of problems, such as classification. The square root or sqrt() function in Python returns the square root of a number.

The below example shows the use of trigonometric function in the python 3 math module is as follows. The below example shows the use of basic functions in python 3 is as follows. In the below example, we have used ceil and factorial functions. Below example shows the use of the math module in python 3 are as follows. This function returns the hyperbolic tangent of the argument x.

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These include trigonometric, representation, logarithmic, and angle conversion functions, among others. This example shows you how to calculate the square root, logarithmic value, and exponential value of a complex number. You can read the documentation if you want to learn more about the cmath module. You don’t have to implement your own functions to calculate GCD. The Python math module provides a function called math.gcd() that allows you to calculate the GCD of two numbers. You can give positive or negative numbers as input, and it returns the appropriate GCD value.

The math module has different functions (trigonometric, logarithmic, conversion, etc.) and constants to perform various mathematical tasks. We can, for example, calculate all trigonometric ratios for any given angle using the built-in functions in the math module. We must provide angles in radians to these trigonometric functions (sin, cos, tan, etc.). However, we are accustomed to measuring angles in terms of degrees.

Python Modules

In this blog post, we will look at some examples of how the math module can be used in Python programs. We’ll start by looking at how to calculate the square root and factorials of numbers, followed by calculating pi and absolute values. Finally, we’ll discuss other functions available within the math module for more complex calculations.

  • In contrast, we are accustomed to expressing the angle in degrees.
  • The first line returns the natural logarithm of 10, and the second line returns the logarithm of 10 to the base 3.
  • The number of digits provided depends on the underlying C compiler.
  • When you get a number with a decimal point, you might want to keep only the integer part and eliminate the decimal part.
  • We also look at the pros and cons of all the methods that can be used.
  • Complex data types aren’t supported by the math module.

When the value is positive (4.23), the function returns the next integer greater than the value . When the value is negative (-11.453), the function likewise returns the next integer greater than the value (-11). Not only is factorial() faster than the other methods, but it’s also more stable. When you implement your own function, you have to explicitly code for disaster cases such as handling negative or decimal numbers.

Not a number, or NaN, isn’t really a mathematical concept. It originated in the computer science field as a reference to values that are not numeric. Rather, it’s a mathematical concept representing something that is never-ending or boundless. Infinity can go in either direction, positive or negative. As with math.pi and math.tau, the value of math.e is given to fifteen decimal places and is returned as a float value. Many mathematical expressions use 2π, and using tau instead can help simplify your equations.

You can give an or a decimal value as input and the function always returns a float value. The math module is a standard module in Python and is always available. To use mathematical functions under this module, you have to import the module using import math. Python has a built-in math module that we can use for mathematical tasks.


The natural logarithm of an integer is returned by the logarithmic function. After raising a preset value, the exponential function returns a float number. Returns the square root of a given number using the square root function. The power function takes any number x as input, raises x to some power n, and returns xn as output. Python’s math module provides several power-related functions. In this section, you’ll learn about power functions, exponential functions, and square root functions.

Exp() method is used to calculate the power of e i.e.or we can say exponential of y. Fabs() function returns the absolute value of the number. The math.gcd() method returns the greatest common denominator for two numbers; we can use it to reduce fractions. Learn about all the mathematical functions available in Python and how you can use them in your program. ¶Return the natural logarithm of the absolute value of the Gamma function at x.

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